Category Archives: Kubernetes

Comparing Docker deployment options in public cloud

Few weeks back, I gave a presentation in Container conference, Bangalore comparing different solutions available to deploy Docker in the public cloud.

Slides are available here. I have also put the steps necessary along with short video for each of the options in the github page here.

Abstract of the talk:

Containers provide portability for applications across private and public clouds. Since there are many options to deploy Docker Containers in public cloud, customers get confused in the decision making process. I will compare Docker machine, Docker Cloud, Docker datacenter, Docker for AWS, Azure and Google cloud, AWS ECS, Google Container engine, Azure Container service. A sample multi-container application will be deployed using the different options. The deployment differences including technical internals for each option will be covered. At the end of the session, the user will be able to choose the right Docker deployment option for their use-case.


  • I have focused mainly on Docker centric options in the comparison.
  • There are few CaaS platforms like Tectonic, Rancher that I have not included since I did not get a chance to try them.
  • Since all the solutions are under active development, some of the gaps will get covered by the solutions in the future.

Kubernetes CRI and Minikube

Kubernetes CRI(Container runtime interface) is introduced in experimental mode in Kubernetes 1.15 release. Kubernetes CRI introduces a common Container runtime layer that allows for Kubernetes orchestrator to work with multiple Container runtimes like Docker, Rkt, Runc, Hypernetes etc. CRI makes it easy to plug in a new Container runtime to Kubernetes. Minikube project simplifies Kubernetes installation for development and testing purposes. Minikube project allows Kubernetes master and worker components to run in a single VM which facilitates developers and users of Kubernetes to easily try out Kubernetes. In this blog, I will cover basics of Minikube usage, overview of CRI and steps to try out CRI with Minikube.


Kubernetes software is composed of multiple components and beginners normally get overwhelmed with the installation steps. It is also easier to have a lightweight Kubernetes environment for development and testing purposes. Minikube has all Kubernetes components in a single VM that runs in the local laptop. Both master and worker functionality is combined in the single VM.

Following are some major features present in Minikube:

Continue reading Kubernetes CRI and Minikube

Mesos and Mesosphere – FAQ

The most popular Container Orchestration solutions available in the market are Kubernetes, Swarm and Mesos. I have used Kubernetes and Swarm, but never got a chance to use Mesos or DC/OS. There were a bunch of questions I had about Mesos and DC/OS and I never got the time to explore that. Recently, I saw the announcement about Mesosphere opensourcing DC/OS and I found this as a perfect opportunity for me to try out Opensource DC/OS. In this blog, I have captured the answers to questions I had regarding Mesos and DC/OS. In the next blog, I will cover some hands-on that I did with Opensource DC/OS.

What is the relationship between Apache Mesos, Opensource DC/OS and Enterprise DC/OS?

Apache Mesos is the Opensource distributed orchestrator for Container as well as non-Container workloads. Both Opensource DC/OS and Enterprise DC/OS are built on top of Apache Mesos. Opensource DC/OS adds  Service discovery, Universe package for different frameworks, CLI and GUI support for management and Volume support for persistent storage. Enterprise DC/OS adds enterprise features around security, performance, networking, compliance, monitoring and multi-team support that the Opensource DC/OS project does not include. Complete list of differences between Opensource and Enterprise DC/OS are captured here.

What does Mesosphere do and how it is related to Apache Mesos?

Mesosphere company has products that are built on top of Apache Mesos. Lot of folks working in Mesosphere contribute to both Apache Mesos and Opensource DC/OS. Mesosphere has the following products currently:

  • DC/OS Enterprise – Orchestration solution
  • Velocity- CI, CD solution
  • Infinity – Big data solution

Why DC/OS is called OS?

Sometimes folks get confused thinking Mesos being a Container optimized OS like CoreOS, Atomic. Mesos is not a Container optimized OS. Similar to the way Desktop OS provides resource management in a single host, DC/OS provides cluster management across entire cluster. Mesos master(including first level scheduler) and agent are perceived as kernel components and user space components include frameworks, user space applications, dns and load balancers. The kernel provides primitives for the frameworks.

What are Mesos frameworks and why they are needed?

Continue reading Mesos and Mesosphere – FAQ

Openstack Deployment using Containers

I recently saw the Openstack self-healing demo from CoreOS team using Tectonic(Stackanetes project) and I kind of felt that the boundary between Containers and VMs are blurring. In this blog, I discuss the usecase of deploying Openstack using Containers.

We typically think of Openstack as a VM Orchestration tool. Openstack is composed of numerous services and deploying Openstack as one monolithic blob is pretty complex and difficult to maintain. The demo described showed how Containers simplify Openstack deployment. This is a great example of using Microservices architecture to simplify infrastructure deployment.

Following diagram shows the Openstack deployment model using Containers. The diagram below shows how Openstack service containers deploys user VM. The user VMs deployed using Openstack can run Containers as well..


Following are some notes on the architecture:

  • Openstack services like Nova, Heat, Horizon are containerized using Openstack Kolla project as Docker Containers. Some Openstack services like Nova is composed of multiple Containers.
  • Infrastructure components like Ceph, Openvswitch, Mongodb are also deployed as Containers.
  • For Container deployment, Openstack natively uses Ansible. Kubernetes can also be used for Orchestration.
  • Using Containers for Openstack service containers gives all the build, ship and deploy advantages of Containers.
  • Using orchestration solution like Kubernetes gives all the resiliency and deployment advantages for Openstack services.

This work also shows how Containers and VMs can work closely with each other for lot of use-cases. There are other Openstack projects like Magnum and Kuryr where there is an intersection between Containers and VMs. Magnum project deals with Container orchestration using Openstack and Kuryr project deals with doing Container networking using Openstack Neutron.


Opensource Meetup Presentation

I did a presentation on CoreOS and Service Discovery in Opensource Meetup group last week. Following are related slides and demo recording.

CoreOS Overview and Current Status


CoreOS HA Demo recording:

Scripts used are available here.

Service Discovery using etcd, Consul and Kubernetes


Consul Service Discovery Demo:

Following are the commands to start Consul Container, Registrator Container and 3 Container services.

docker run -d -p 8500:8500 -p -p 8400:8400 gliderlabs/consul-server -node myconsul -bootstrap
docker run -d -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock --net=host gliderlabs/registrator -internal consul://localhost:8500

docker run -d -p :80 -e "SERVICE_80_NAME=http" -e "SERVICE_80_ID=http1" -e "SERVICE_80_CHECK_HTTP=true" -e "SERVICE_80_CHECK_HTTP=/" --name=nginx1 nginx
docker run -d -p :80 -e "SERVICE_80_NAME=http" -e "SERVICE_80_ID=http2" -e "SERVICE_80_CHECK_HTTP=true" -e "SERVICE_80_CHECK_HTTP=/" --name=nginx2 nginx
docker run -ti smakam/myubuntu:v3 bash

Microservices Infrastructure using Mantl

Mantl is an Open source project from Cisco and it provides an integrated solution to deploy distributed Microservices. Any company deploying Microservices has to integrate different components before the solution becomes production ready. Mantl makes it easier by integrating the different components and providing the glue software that integrates the components. In this blog, I will cover the following:

  • Distributed Microservice infrastructure components and the need for Mantl.
  • Mantl Architecture.
  • Mantl installation using Vagrant
  • Mantl installation using AWS public cloud

Microservices infrastructure

Following are typical components in Container based Microservices infrastructure:

Continue reading Microservices Infrastructure using Mantl